Building Networks on the Fly – IEEE Spectrum

By the early 1990s, IBM and Hewlett-Packard, as well as Canon, Hitachi, Ricoh, and other large makers of office equipment, had realized that customers expanding their networks with new copiers and other components almost always got bogged down.

The problem was one of compatibility. Every time a company wanted to attach new equipment to a network, it had to add software to every network node that might ever access the additions. Worse yet, the system was highly unlikely to be homogeneous, as the network devices, new or old, were highly unlikely to be the products of a single manufacturer. So in 1995 U.S. and Japanese companies formed the Salutation Consortium to come up with a solution.

As the consortium members saw it, the solution had two parts: it called for a uniform way of labeling devices digitally with descriptions of their capabilities, plus a single common method of sharing that information. To illustrate, the need was for a printer, say, to be equipped to describe its capabilities to any suitably equipped computer or other network element that might come calling.

Fortunately, industry groups such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) were already working on the first element–developing standard data formats for different types of equipment. For instance, an IETF standard, Request-for-Comment (RFC) 1759, released in 1995, provides a standard way of describing printer capabilities. Typically, printers can accept different sizes of paper from different input bins, print in different colors, sort and collate, and create printing logs. RFC 1759 describes how this information, along with printer status (such as “in use” or “warming up”) should be encoded and stored in a file called the Printer MIB (management information base) table.

How to find and “interview” the printer, though, was up to the consortium. Success depended on cooperation among makers of computers, printers, and other office equipment, who in many cases were also competitors. The formation of the Salutation Consortium overcame that obstacle, creating an open arena in which the work done could be freely shared by all.

Since that time, the idea of automating the way networks are put together has fired the information technology industry’s imagination. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group, formed in February 1998 by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba, and the Jini organization–started in July of the same year by Sun Microsystems Inc., Palo Alto, Calif.–are among those that have independently tried to create ways to set up networks on the fly. Their initial releases, which were also announced in 1998, have tackled the problem from different perspectives.

The Bluetooth group has worked on defining requirements for wireless networks from the bottom up. Its specification establishes a radio connection between two devices and then covers everything up to the point where the connection is made and applications can be started.

As the specification was originally defined, a computer equipped with a wireless Bluetooth module for sending e-mail to a Bluetooth-enabled phone must first find the phone. It sends out a signal asking any other Bluetooth device in the vicinity to respond, whereupon the phone thus found and the computer use frequency-hopping to establish a secure means of communicating.

how discovery protocols stack up

Click on image to enlarge.

That done, the devices still have to discover each other’s capabilities. To this end, Bluetooth defines a service discovery protocol, which helps the computer and phone set up a network on the fly. The ad hoc network exists only as long as the computer and phone are close enough to each other and in need of each other’s services [see “Bluetooth’s slow dawn,” IEEE Spectrum, November 2000, p. 61­65].

A computer that uses Sun Microsystems’ Jini protocol enhances Java applications, enabling it also to set up an ad hoc network with a printer, say, automatically. The protocol does not specify how the computer and the printer are connected to the network, possibly by Ethernet or even by a radio signal. What it spells out are how the two devices should negotiate a “contract” for services, how long they should stay connected, and where to find the software needed to perform printing operations. As part of that process, Jini includes a discovery protocol [see “Who’s Who in Discovery“] that enables devices to find out about each other.

Even though Jini and Bluetooth both have a discovery protocol, the two protocols are incompatible. A Jini device cannot communicate with a phone that uses only the Bluetooth service discovery protocol. However, Salutation, the discovery protocol developed by the Salutation Consortium, may turn out to be the bridge between Bluetooth and Jini devices, as well as to other platforms [see table, above]. Were the devices to use the same protocol, they would at least be able to determine the capabilities of the other devices in the network. What’s more, because the same software could be used with a Java- or Bluetooth-enabled device, or one using some other network protocol, Salutation may be the most cost-effective way to develop applications for any networked device [<a href="https://spectrum.ieee.org/img/netf1-1336406028247.gif" rel="lightbox" title="Networking Diversity: Infinite variety–that hardly exaggerates the network device types that need to work together. All need a common means for discovering which other network resources are available and can provide needed services. For the home, manufacturers are working together on the home audio-video interoperability network to link everything from personal digital assistants (PDAs) to camcorders under the user's remote control [left]. A home network controller [not shown] would be in charge, and wirelessly communicate with hand-held devices that use the Bluetooth protocol.
A home private branch exchange (PBX) or other telecommunications system will connect the home net to the Internet [center], so that users will be able to communicate between home and office [right] or cell phone when they are traveling [lower left]. Establishing these connections will involve many different networks, such as corporate local-area networks employing Jini software [right]. © 2001 IEEE Spectrum magazine”>see figure].

Related posts:

Microsoft adds Azure capabilities to Windows Server 2022 - SecurityBrief Asia
Barely a month after the launch of Windows Server 2022, users are exploring everything the new platform has to offer, including new features like Hyper-V virtual machine support Released last mo...
Sprott Announces Third Quarter 2021 Results - Financial Post
Breadcrumb Trail Links GlobeNewswire Author of the article: GlobeNewswire Article content TORONTO, Nov. 05, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Sprott Inc. (NYSE/TSX: SII) (“Sprott” or the “Com...
How can i Access Blocked Websites almost everywhere and for Free - BollyInside
This lesson is about the How to Find out Blocked Websites anywhere for Free. We will try our best so that you will understand this guide. I hope you enjoy this blog How to Access Blocked Online...
Charting a slow-motion breakout: S&P 500 challenges 3,700 mark - MarketWatch
Editor’s Note: This is a free edition of The Technical Indicator, a daily MarketWatch subscriber newsletter. To get this column each market day, click here. Technically speaking, the U.S. benchmarks ...
Principal Safety Tips To Remember Even though Driving Your Car - BBN Times
The value of safety has been drilled inside of our heads for as long as we are remember. Whether it's the fireman contacting us about not shopping with matches or mom reminding us to buckle r...
To know how to configure proxy in Chrome for Android - BollyInside
This guide is about the How to maintain proxy in Firefox for Android. We will try our best in order that people understand this guide. I hope you cherish this blog How to configure proxy inside...
How to open and use Windows 11 Settings to tweak your PC - TWCN Tech News
Windows 11 is here now! If you have installed Windows 11 on your computer and are feeling overwhelmed by it, then don’t you worry – This easy-to-understand tutorial will help you sort everything! Win...
Amazon Prime Blocking Vpn: How To Fix Http Proxy Error - Analytics Insight
what to do when Amazon Prime is giving an HTTP Proxy Error? Check out solutions hereAre you still unable to access American Amazon Prime from Australia even after changing your IP address using a VPN...
The particular do you need a proxy site? - iLounge
Working on the internet is not of safe as you think. You can find hackers out there ready to exploit your space. So , to save yourself secure and safe inside cyberspace, one needs to understand w...
wifi signal strength reduced sharply. aerial? - Internal Hardware - BleepingComputer
Yesterday morning all of a sudden sites were taking a long time to load, and then, when it was taking a long time to copy between this pc and another on the home network I twigged that the signal str...
Zenscrape Web Scraping and Extraction API at Scale - XDA Developers
Web scraping on a large scale doesn’t have to be a complicated and frustrating task. Some of the more common hurdles that people have to jump through when scraping through data are IP bans and scalab...
Oracle Cloud now provides Arm CPUs at one cent per core hour - iTWire
Oracle today announced a new range of Arm compute instances based on Ampere’s ARM processors along with the tools and support to accelerate Arm-based application development. The new Arm offerings c...
5 Best Free Proxy Browser for 2021: A Review - EIN News
INDIA, January 6, 2021 /EINPresswire.com/ -- The best anonymous browsers and privacy tools will help safeguard your data against unauthorized collection and use by third-parties. This is increasingly...
The Ultimate Tutorial On How To Do Web Scraping - hackernoon.com
@aurkenbAurken BilbaoFounder @ ZenRows.com. Entrepreneur with deep technical background, with 15+ years in startups, security & banking.Web Scraping is the process of automatically collecting web...
Associated with web apps vulnerable to DNS cache poisoning via ‘forgot password’ feature - The sever...
Ben Dickson 23 Quite often 2021 at 11: otteogtyve UTC Up-to-date: 23 July 2021 through 11: 41 UTC Connected with 146 tested, two computer software were vulnerable to Kaminsky approaches, and ...
Dallas Invents: 149 Patents Granted for Week of Aug 3 » Dallas Innovates - dallasinnovates.com
Dallas Invents is a weekly look at U.S. patents granted with a connection to the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metro area. Listings include patents granted to local assignees and/or those with a N...
Dallas Invents: 149 Patents Granted for Week of March 23 - dallasinnovates.com
Dallas Invents is a weekly look at U.S. patents granted with a connection to the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metro area. Listings include patents granted to local assignees and/or those with a N...
Web Scraping Explained: Why Proxies Are Needed for Scraping - News & Features
Web scraping is essentially the process of extracting data from websites. All the job of extracting data on a website is carried out by a piece of code that is called a “scraper”.According to a repor...

IP Rotating Proxy Onsale

SPECIAL LIMITED TIME OFFER

00
Months
00
Days
00
Hours
00
Minutes
00
Seconds
First month free with coupon code FREE30